Thus, artifacts exposed to higher temperatures, for example by being at lower elevationseem to hydrate faster.
The whole computing processing is embedded in stand-alone software created in Matlab version 7. Once an archeologist can control for the geochemical signature of the obsidian e.
In fact, the saturation layer on the surface forms up to a certain depth depending on factors that include the kinetics of the diffusion mechanism for the water molecules, the specific chemical structure of obsidian, as well as the external conditions affecting diffusion temperature, relative humidity, and pressure. Several commercial companies and university laboratories provide obsidian hydration services.
The second stage regards the determination of the saturation layer, i.
Temperature is known to speed up the hydration process. In essence it is a technique with a large resolution on a plethora of chemical elements and molecular structures in an essentially non destructive manner.
This method of measurement is non-destructive. Secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS procedure[ edit ] In case of measuring the hydration rim using the depth profiling ability of the secondary ion mass spectrometry technique, the sample is mounted on a holder without any preparation or cutting.
Water vapor pressure may also affect the rate of obsidian hydration.
Any mass-spectrometer can work in static mode very low ion current, a top mono-atomic layer analysisand dynamic mode a high ion current density, in-depth analysis. SIMS in general refers to four instrumental categories according to their operation; static, dynamic, quadrupole, and time-of-flight, TOF. Thus, artifacts exposed to higher temperatures, for example by being at lower elevationseem to hydrate faster.
The principle behind obsidian hydration dating is simple—the longer the artifact obsidian hydration dating archaeology has been exposed, the thicker the hydration band will be. In Rhodes, Greece, under the direction and invention of Ioannis Liritzis,  the dating approach is based on modeling the S-like hydrogen profile by SIMS, following Fick's diffusion law, and an understanding of the surface saturation layer see Figure.
There are two general SIMS modes: This sample is ground down to about 30 micrometers thick and mounted on a petrographic slide. Water vapor pressure may also affect the rate of obsidian hydration. Temperature is known to speed up the hydration process. As well, obsidian chemistry, including the intrinsic water content, seems to affect the rate of hydration.